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Professional knowledge of water conservancy and hydropower safety production

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Professional knowledge of water conservancy and hydropower safety production

Date:2017-09-06 Author: Click:

51. in the pre flood safety inspection, in view of the reservoir management should check what content?

Answer: ( 1 ) the implementation of the responsibility system for the safety management of the reservoir dam; ( 2 ) the establishment and implementation of the internal management rules and regulations of the reservoir management unit and the implementation of the post responsibility system; ( 3 ) the important facilities and equipment operation system is established and key positions related certificates; ( 4 ) the management and maintenance of the reservoir dam; ( 5 ) the implementation of flood control and emergency plan and flood control materials, emergency equipment reserves; ( 6 ) dam inspection management implementation.

52. what are the main contents of earth-rock dam safety inspection?

Answer: ( 1 ) dam surface displacement, subsidence, cracks, landslides, erosion and other phenomena; ( 2 ) the dam surface slope protection with or without overturning, loosening, collapse, overhead and other phenomena; ( 3 ) back water slope, abutment and dam site on both sides of the landslide, collapse, bank collapse, scouring, concentrated seepage and other phenomena; Infiltration and decompression facilities for damage, penetration, silting and other phenomena; ( 4 ) drainage backwash facilities are blocked and poor drainage, water seepage with or without sudden increase, sudden decrease and turbidity phenomenon; ( 5 ) dam foundation, dam body infiltration line and pressure water pressure measuring pipe water level is normal; ( 6 ) embedded in the dam of concrete structure and joint with other buildings, interface working conditions have abnormal change; ( 7 ) dam top pavement and anti-wave wall is in good condition, there is no collapse, crack site, the focus is on the two dam head anti-wave wall crack opening and the main riverbed dam section of anti-wave wall extrusion.

53. concrete ( panel ) dam appearance safety inspection including what aspects?

Answer: ( 1 ) the dam surface and anti-wave wall cracks, dislocation, dam displacement and displacement between two adjacent dam section is abnormal; ( 2 ) whether there is water seepage, denudation, carbonization, free lime drainage phenomenon on the dam surface; ( 3 ) expansion joint opening and closing is normal, water stop packing with or without damage or failure; ( 4 ) dam foundation uplift pressure, gallery seepage and drainage is normal; ( 5 ) the dam observation equipment is normal work, control analysis observation data with or without super design phenomenon; ( 6 ) mainly check the arch crown upstream face, arch support downstream face crack and transverse seam opening.

54. flood discharge and water conveyance facilities need to carry out what safety inspection?

Answer: ( 1 ) there are no dangerous rock collapse, landslide, deposit near the water inlet, slope protection with and without cracks, loose, overhead phenomenon; Check whether the inlet and outlet flow pattern is normal, there is no floating accumulation, pressure hole vent is unobstructed; ( 2 ) overflow weir, side wall, floor, stilling pool and other parts of the concrete crack, wear, erosion and other damage phenomenon; ( 3 ) whether the hydraulic jump flow state is normal, whether there is any phenomenon such as water flow, swing flow, reflux; ( 4 ) the concrete lining in the water conveyance tunnel is free from spalling, cracks, water leakage, cavitation and other phenomena; ( 5 ) concrete pressure pipe crack, leakage, deformation, joint seam water stop failure phenomenon; ( 6 ) pressure pipeline Ming tube on both sides of the mountain with and without dangerous rock landslide, landslide, crack, ditch erosion endanger Ming tube safety phenomenon.

55. what are the emergency measures for reservoir security risks?

Answer: in view of the potential safety hazard found before flood season or during flood season, corresponding emergency measures shall be implemented immediately: ( 1 ) engineering measures shall be taken to carry out emergency reinforcement; ( 2 ) to strengthen the dynamic monitoring of hidden trouble points; ( 3 ) targeted implementation or increase the reservoir emergency materials; ( 4 ) timely adjust the reservoir control operation mode, take strict control of water storage or empty reservoir flood control measures; ( 5 ) the downstream personnel safety transfer preparation work.

56. what are the basic principles of flood season scheduling?

Answer: ( 1 ) under the premise of ensuring the safety of reservoir engineering, follow the principle of " local obey the whole, xing benefit obey flood control"; ( 2 ) the reservoir must be in accordance with the design requirements for flood control capacity; ( 3 ) when the main project of the reservoir risk, approved by the competent authorities need to control the water storage, shall not emphasize the immediate interests of illegal water storage; ( 4 ) the preparation of reservoir control plan, must distinguish between primary and secondary, to ensure the demand of key water sector.

57. the main content of emergency rescue?

Answer: ( 1 ) clear the scope of application of the plan, according to the consequences of the reservoir crash and the degree of influence, clear the different danger level; ( 2 ) standardize the monitoring and reporting of danger; ( 3 ) corresponding to different levels of danger rob protection measures, including emergency scheduling, emergency measures, personnel emergency transfer plan, etc.; ( 4 ) to implement the corresponding emergency safeguard measures, including emergency rescue organization, rescue team, emergency supplies, communication, personnel transfer, logistics and other aspects; ( 5 ) the implementation of the plan, including clear plan start conditions, decision-making command institutions and procedures, work responsibilities, plan end conditions, etc.

58. what are the relevant requirements of reservoir emergency management?

Answer: ( 1 ) reservoir danger signs, reservoir management unit must immediately to the reservoir where the people's government, the competent department of the reservoir, the people's government at the county level flood control and drought prevention headquarters report, and take emergency measures; ( 2 ) the flood control and drought prevention headquarters of the people's government at the county level after receiving the report, should immediately send someone to the site inspection, and the situation in a timely manner to the provincial and municipal people's government flood control and drought prevention headquarters report; ( 3 ) when the reservoir is out of danger, the people's government at the county level where the reservoir is located shall organize the implementation of emergency rescue work, and shall issue an alarm in a timely manner to the areas that are expected to be affected; ( 4 ) during the reservoir rescue, the people's governments at all levels and flood control and drought prevention headquarters according to the needs of the reservoir rescue, have the right to call within the jurisdiction of the government at the corresponding level of manpower, materials, equipment, means of transportation, have the right to take earth covers an area of land, cut down trees, remove water obstacles and other necessary emergency measures; When necessary, the relevant departments of public security, transportation and other relevant departments in accordance with the needs of emergency rescue, the implementation of land and water traffic control.

59. what are the contents and methods of reservoir dam inspections?

A: reservoir dam inspection content: dam body, dam foundation, abutment, all kinds of flood discharge input facilities and their gates, as well as the bank slope near the dam area which has a significant impact on dam safety and other buildings and facilities directly related to dam safety.

Inspection methods: ( 1 ) the heart to the key parts or key facilities to pay special attention to and be very careful; ( 2 ) the eye, check the dam, dam feet for leakage, piping, deformation and other phenomena, wave wall and dam body crack, gate leakage; ( 3 ) hand to, with the hand to explore and check the soil loose, collapse Tao empty, feel the water temperature is abnormal, etc.; ( 4 ) the ear, listen to the presence of abnormal water flow; ( 5 ) feet to, with the feet to check whether the dam slope, dam feet appear soft soil or wet or even water seepage; ( 6 ) to carry water rod, shovel, etc., in order to find danger in time.

60. what are the requirements of water conservancy project safety monitoring work?

Answer: water conservancy project safety monitoring work to do " four no, four with, four fixed". Four no, that is, no measurement, no leakage, no violation, no discrepancy accuracy. Four with, that is, with the observation, with the record, with the calculation, with the check. Four fixed, that is, personnel, instruments, measurement, fixed time.

61. what are the common diseases in the process of water conservancy project maintenance and treatment methods?

Answer: crack: ( 1 ) the non-sliding crack of earth dam or embankment can be treated by loosening, tamping, filling and sealing, excavating, backfilling and grouting. ( 2 ) the longitudinal crack of the rockfill dam adopts the method of filling sand or gravel into the crack; The transverse cracks of inclined wall or core wall shall be repaired by backfilling with raw materials after excavation and removal.

Leakage: ( 1 ) crack leakage, permeability, first in the crack treatment; ( 2 ) if it is for other reasons, such as poor construction quality, large area of loose permeability and expansion joint leakage, etc., should be in accordance with the requirements of the specification, the scheme design, approved by the competent department at a higher level for examination and approval by the professional construction team for processing.

Slope protection damage: ( 1 ) temporary protection measures include sand bag gland, riprap gland, etc. After the temporary treatment tends to be stable, to fill the renovation, add concrete cover or frame reinforcement method for processing; ( 2 ) after the concrete structure or slurry block stone loose or fall off, first remove the loose and broken parts, rinse clean, reoccupy concrete or mortar and block stone to fill ( build by laying bricks or stones ) building.

Termite damage control of earth dam: ( 1 ) at least once a year to conduct a termite hazard survey, the ants have been found in a timely manner to take control measures to prevent the spread of ants; ( 2 ) every spring and autumn two seasons using mirex or dig hole nest method to kill termites, finally to nest, ant road grouting plugging, lest leave leakage channel.

62. what are the considerations for inspections of monitoring and maintenance personnel?

A: inspection, monitoring and maintenance work are outdoor operations, staff should do their own protection in the following aspects. ( 1 ) familiar with the surrounding environment, understand the safety zone; ( 2 ) go out to work best wear rubber shoes or rain shoes, in the face of the water homework to be particularly careful to prevent slipping into the water; ( 3 ) in case of rain or high water level, wear life jacket or bring lifesaving equipment; ( 4 ) shall not be under the reservoir or river swimming; ( 5 ) seawall inspection and maintenance personnel should try to avoid the surge period to go out to work; ( 6 ) high temperature season as far as possible to go out to work time in the morning or evening, if must go out in high temperature period, should do a good job of protection; At the same time to pay special attention to the snake, and pay attention to do a good job of lightning protection; ( 7 ) in the use of epoxy resin and other materials for repair, the scene must be well ventilated, maintenance personnel to do a good job in protective measures, after the use of tools shall not be abandoned or thrown into the reservoir.

63. how to deal with snake bite self - help?

A: ( 1 ) don't panic run, reduce activity, as far as possible to delay the spread of toxins; ( 2 ) quickly binding with a tourniquet or cloth strip at the proximal end of the limb 5 - 10 cm away from the wound, and relaxing for 3 - 5 minutes at intervals of half an hour to slow down the absorption of toxins into blood; ( 3 ) cut the wound with sharp tools, rinse the wound with clear water and tea; ( 4 ) with cupping suction venom, also can use mouth sucking, promote venom seeping, but pay attention to the mouth can't have wounds and ulcers, and to gargle in time; ( 5 ) also can use matches, cigarette burns wound damage snake venom, and quickly sent to the hospital with treatment experience.

64. what are the requirements of hydrological station survey work?

Answer: do ( 1 ) four with, with the calculation, with the report, with the finishing, with the analysis; ( 2 ) four no, good report, not late, no shortage of report, no omission.

65. what are the considerations for hydrographic survey and maintenance staff?

Answer: ( 1 ) field staff should be familiar with the surrounding environment, understand where geological disasters may occur, where is relatively safe; ( 2 ) navigation river in the test, must set up obvious measurement marks; Life jackets must be provided when carrying out water operations; ( 3 ) across the highway or navigable river hydrological cableway, must be on the lead fish suspension cable hanging warning signs, it is strictly prohibited to use hydrological cableway ferry, ferry or has nothing to do with the operation of the survey report, it is strictly prohibited to overload operation; ( 4 ) aerial work should wear a seat belt, homework personnel should pay attention to the pedestrian under the cable, ships and floaters, etc.; ( 5 ) in the electrical equipment such as motor cleaning maintenance, must first cut off the power supply, it is strictly prohibited to use wet hand contact not cut off the power supply of electrical equipment; ( 6 ) in the water level logging dredging should ensure that there are more than two personnel, inoue personnel should always pay attention to the safety of the well personnel, and pay attention to the ventilation of logging; ( 7 ) to strengthen the safety management of water quality analysis laboratory, in addition to the toxic chemicals, reagents and important test sites to strengthen key supervision, at the same time must also be the laboratory may cause all kinds of accidents to make full preventive measures and emergency preparedness.

66. what are the main elements of hydrological inspection after the flood?

Answer: ( 1 ) observation field facilities and equipment and guardrail is in good condition; ( 2 ) water table logging and water inlet pipe is washed out and silted up; ( 3 ) cableway room and cableway flow measurement facilities are in good condition; ( 4 ) artificial water level and water level observation road is in good condition.

67. what are the main contents of the inspection and maintenance of lightning protection equipment?

Answer: ( 1 ) check whether the protection of lightning protection device changes due to the construction of buildings or other activities; ( 2 ) everywhere Ming installed conductor have broken due to corrosion or mechanical damage, downlead from the ground 2 m a section of the protection of damage; ( 3 ) whether the lightning receptor melts or breaks due to receiving lightning strikes, and whether the lightning receptor bracket is decayed; ( 4 ) whether there is any change in the protection spacing; ( 5 ) measure the stray current resistance of all grounding device, such as found that the resistance value has a great change, to conduct a comprehensive inspection of grounding system.

68. what are the contents of the inspection before the gate operation?

Answer: ( 1 ) should check whether there are any personnel in the downstream channel and ships stranded near the gate before discharge; ( 2 ) there is no floating block around the gate, the door body is skewed, the door slot is blocked, the connection between the gate and hoist is firm; ( 3 ) there is a bypass valve of the building, to check whether it is normal; Buildings with vent holes, to check whether the vent hole is open; ( 4 ) the presence of vessels, floaters or other obstacles that may affect the normal flow of water upstream.

69. what is included in the inspection before the hoist operation?

Answer: ( 1 ) locking device should exit, hoist control cabinet should hang up signs; ( 2 ) the opening indicator, upper and lower limit switch and overload limiter should be in good condition; ( 3 ) the rotating parts, open gear, etc. should be no blocking obstacles, protective cover should be in good condition, and the rotating parts without scraping phenomenon; Whether the brake is flexible and reliable; ( 4 ) whether the wire rope is corroded, broken wire, rope end fixed device is firm; ( 5 ) the electrical equipment in the control cabinet is in good condition, wiring is loose; Whether the contactor, relay, etc. are engaged well.

70. what are the precautions for safe operation of the gate?

Answer: ( 1 ) in strict accordance with the reservoir scheduling procedures and gate operation procedures using gate, operators must go through this type of work special training, examination qualified and hold a license before operation, shall not drink during work; ( 2 ) the gate operation, should avoid stay on the opening of the vibration prone; ( 3 ) during the drainage period, pay attention to the upstream and downstream water level changes and water flow pattern; At the same time to pay attention to the presence of ships or other floating near the gate, prevent possible impact gate events; ( 4 ) need to open all porous gate, should be from the middle hole in turn to the symmetrical open on both sides, closed from both sides to the middle symmetry closed in turn; ( 5 ) the gate need to open for a long time, should add locking device.

71. the gate hoist maintenance have what matters needing attention?

Answer: ( 1 ) gate door body, water stop cleaning inspection, fixed wheel, side wheel, arc door hinge oil, the role of personnel should fasten according to the seat belt, wear non-slip shoes, and have a specialist care; ( 2 ) in the door slot operation, should have measures to prevent tools, equipment fall into the door slot, in case of gate stuck; ( 3 ) during operation hoist room or gate orifice upper should have specialist care; ( 4 ) shall not be in the hoist drum rotation lubrication wire rope; ( 5 ) maintenance hoist open gear, reducer, coupling and other transmission mechanism, homework personnel should be unified command, coordination, prevent extrusion, rolling fingers, homework should be installed protective cover, shall not be damaged.

72. what are the matters needing attention in the safe operation of diesel generating sets?

Answer: ( 1 ) the operator must be specially trained to operate independently, operation electrician must also obtain special operation certificate; ( 2 ) keep the room clean and tidy, near the generator shall not store fuel or other flammable items, and set up fire equipment. In case of fire, the power supply must be cut off quickly to save the fire; ( 3 ) the generator to the distribution board or electrical equipment wire, must be well insulated, joint is firm, and should be installed in the iron pipe or trough, not literally dragged on the ground; ( 4 ) generator operation, it is strictly prohibited to human contact with charged parts; During the operation of the diesel engine, the exhaust pipe and exhaust gas booster and other heat sources shall not be touched to prevent burns; ( 5 ) in case of " coaster", should quickly and decisively try to cut off the fuel supply, make the diesel engine stop working; ( 6 ) acid battery is strictly prohibited when charging fireworks, room ventilation to explosion-proof sound is required.

73. pumping station operation safety should pay attention to what matters?

Answer: ( 1 ) before put into operation, must first check the safety protection device, to ensure that the action is sensitive and reliable. Should be notified before starting up, downstream river stranded personnel evacuated to a safe area, check whether the trash rack is blocked; ( 2 ) the operation of electrical equipment must strictly implement the switch operation ticket system, operation monitoring system, prevent misoperation and arc cuts; Operation of high voltage switch equipment, must wear insulating gloves, wear insulating boots, and have specialist care; ( 3 ) electrical equipment shall not overload operation, so as not to cause insulation damage due to overheating, short circuit, and even explosion, fire accident. Strengthen the monitoring work in operation; ( 4 ) in the operation of the pump group, it is strictly prohibited to contact the human body charged part, it is strictly prohibited to touch the motor charged part; ( 5 ) transformer, motor operation, three-phase voltage, current response, and smooth operation, no abnormal sound, motor commutator or slip ring spark is normal, excitation device running normally; ( 6 ) operation personnel should often patrol check each part, monitoring instrument, according to the requirements of the record the data.

74. pump station maintenance safety what are the key points of attention?

Answer: ( 1 ) all personnel to participate in mechanical and electrical equipment maintenance, must pass the technical examination of the corresponding type of work qualified rear can mount guard; Use special tools reasonably; ( 2 ) according to the order of disassembly, can't blindly disorderly dismantle disorderly outfit; Each pipe or hole hole opening, after removal shall be blocked with wooden plug or cover plate; ( 3 ) pay attention to waste oil recovery, so as not to cause pollution, prevent fire; ( 4 ) pump group maintenance, maintenance, must disconnect the power supply, and hang warning signs; ( 5 ) into the plate, cabinet maintenance must be carried out according to the power outage, electricity inspection, discharge, grounding procedures; ( 6 ) maintenance equipment grounding, must use special grounding line. Hang, remove the grounding line should be in accordance with the provisions of the order of operation.

75. what are the principles of water conservancy project rescue?

Answer: ( 1 ) strengthen inspection and observation, timely detection of danger, do rob early rob small; ( 2 ) correctly identify and judge the danger, reasonable to rob protection scheme; ( 3 ) timely supply of emergency materials; ( 4 ) strengthen leadership, unified command, organize rescue team; ( 5 ) if the rescue is not successful, should inform the threatened area personnel safety transfer as soon as possible.

76. what are the basic approaches to addressing vulnerabilities?

Answer: ( 1 ) in a timely manner with acupuncture non-woven fabrics, quilts, cotton wool, straw bags and other soft materials to plug the hole in the water inlet; Large-area composite geomembrane row or tarpaulin cover can also be used for blocking to cut off the water leakage source; ( 2 ) in the hole outlet using reverse filter and well, reduce the flow velocity in the hole, delay and stop the soil loss.

77. what is the basic principle of seepage protection?

Answer: the principle of water seepage protection is " front wall back". ( 1 ) " front plugging": on the water side of the dike, an external seepage control is carried out by using a viscous soil material with small water permeability, and the seepage isolation of tarpaulin and geomembrane can also be used, so that the infiltration of water bodies into the dike is reduced, and the purpose of reducing the infiltration line in the dike is achieved; ( 2 ) " back row": on the back of the dike water slope do some filtration drainage facilities, with good permeability of materials, such as geotextile, sand and gravel material or straw, reed do filtration facilities, let the seeping water, controlled outflow, don't let soil erosion, increase the stability of the dike slope.

78. what are the basic approaches to landslide treatment?

Answer: the principle of landslide protection is: try to increase the anti-sliding force, reduce the sliding force as soon as possible, first solid feet, then cut slope. ( 1 ) near the surface of the landslide should be in the landslide sliding block part do earth-rock kung tai. As the earth-rock kung tai has difficulty, do stone support temporary stability landslide; Throwing stones, gabions, woven bags of earth and stone and other heavy stamping materials at the foot of the dike to prevent further development of bank collapse and collapse; ( 2 ) back to the surface of the landslide protection to take the upper slope, the lower part of the method of pushing soil pressure; If the attention of landslide is due to seepage action, should be taken at the same time " cutting back" measures.

79. what are the basic methods for dealing with the danger of bank collapse?

Answer: ( 1 ) first of all to stabilize the foot of the slope, solid base impact; ( 2 ) after the danger of bank collapse is stable, the bank slope shall be treated again; ( 3 ) in order to slow down the development of the danger of bank collapse, measures must be taken to prevent the destruction of the rapids.

80. what are the basic methods to deal with the danger of contact erosion?

Answer: ( 1 ) in the building near the surface of the water block, back to the surface of the water back filter water, especially the foundation and the building contact parts of erosion damage, should raise the channel water level inside the dike, reduce the erosion flow velocity; ( 2 ) the possible collapse of the building, should be in the embankment near the surface of the water retaining cofferdam or to build a dike.

81. what are the basic methods to deal with crack danger?

Answer: ( 1 ) excavation backfill; ( 2 ) transverse wall partition; ( 3 ) sealing the seam.

82. what matters should be paid attention to in the process of emergency rescue personnel?

Answer: ( 1 ) to the rescue site, first observe and understand the surrounding environment, grasp the terrain, river water potential, and housing, walking route, etc., in case of emergency escape; And timely evacuation of onlookers; ( 2 ) according to the division of labor, close cooperation, all actions to command; ( 3 ) the rescue personnel had better wear a life jacket or carry life-saving equipment; ( 4 ) the rescue site should have lighting equipment, and equipped with the necessary emergency lighting; ( 5 ) after the success of the rescue sent people stay at the scene, take turns on duty patrol 24 hours.

83. what are the main factors affecting the stability and safe operation of the turbine?

Answer: ( 1 ) the unit over speed; ( 2 ) vibration; ( 3 ) cavitation of water turbine; ( 4 ) unit bearing temperature.

84. what are the causes and consequences of generator overcurrent?

Answer: ( 1 ) the cause of the generator over current is the generator external short circuit, resulting in the generator to the short circuit point output large short circuit current; ( 2 ) the consequences of generator over current is short circuit current make the stator coil overheating and burned down.

85. what is the general principle of brake operation?

Answer: ( 1 ) when closing must determine the circuit breaker in the open position, and then close the isolating switch, and then close the circuit breaker; Points brake points circuit breaker, must determine the circuit breaker in the open position, and then points isolation switch. It is strictly prohibited to use isolating switch with load points, closed loop; ( 2 ) before the circuit breaker points, closing must be " three check", can't blindly believe that one of the three position instructions; ( 3 ) on both sides of the circuit breaker is separate from each other independent power supply, circuit breaker must be operated at the same time.

86. the need for temporary maintenance of electrical equipment maintenance, take what safety measures?

Answer: must complete the power outage, check electricity, install grounding line, and hang signs, install block and other safety technical measures.

87. what should be paid attention to the fire safety of hydropower plant?

Answer: ( 1 ) fire hydrant must be set up in the plant, fire hydrant must be reliable water source, water pressure is enough, decorate quantity should ensure that the water gun jet can shoot to any position of the plant, shall not be piled up around the goods; ( 2 ) the plant wall should be set up fire extinguisher box, in order to use small range of fire extinguishing. Fire extinguishers should be regularly checked and dressing; ( 3 ) inflammable and explosive goods should be placed in a special room for isolation, gas welding, welding should pay attention to whether there are flammable and explosive goods around.

88. hydropower station oil system fire safety should pay attention to what matters?

Answer: ( 1 ) oil drums of the oil system must be placed in a closed oil depot separately, the door of the oil depot is made of iron gate, the top of the oil depot is equipped with fire extinguishing water spray shower, oil tank at the bottom of the accident discharge valve is located outside the oil depot; ( 2 ) when the oil depot fire, close the iron gate, open the shower spray fire extinguishing, open the accident drain valve at the same time will oil tank oil into the accident oil pool. It is strictly prohibited to enter the oil depot to put out the fire.

89. transformer fire safety precautions have?

Answer: ( 1 ) the main transformer shall be located in the center of the accident oil pool filled with cobblestones, and the bottom of the oil tank shall be provided with an accident oil drain valve; ( 2 ) when the main transformer fire, should immediately jump open high and low voltage side of the circuit breaker, and pull open the isolating switch, confirm the transformer is not charged after fire; ( 3 ) for indoor auxiliary transformer and excitation transformer, should be equipped with sand box and fire extinguisher in the room, when the transformer fire should be immediately open indoor 6.3 kv isolation switch on the wall, confirm the transformer is not charged with sand or fire extinguisher for fire extinguishing.

90. what is a typhoon? What are the dangers?

A: typhoon refers to a tropical cyclone system with wind speed over 32.6 m / s and wind speed over 12 in the western Pacific and south China sea, which generally affects our province from July to September. The hazards of typhoon mainly include strong wind, heavy rain, storm surge, huge waves and the resulting landslides, debris flow secondary disasters.

91. what are the precautions before the impact of the typhoon?

A: the following precautions should be taken before typhoon impacts: ( 1 ) typhoon forecast adopts three forms of " news", " warning" and " emergency warning". Water conservancy staff should pay close attention to the relevant reports, especially the local meteorological department forecast, take timely preventive measures; ( 2 ) to understand the safety of the unit and evacuation routes, prepare the necessary materials for emergency; ( 3 ) timely transfer to the safety zone, avoid all kinds of dangerous old housing, workshop, barrack, telegraph poles, scaffolding and other dangerous areas; ( 4 ) the family to fix flowerpots and other items, construction enterprises to sort out and pile up good construction equipment, tools and sporadic materials; ( 5 ) the ship to sea, out of port to timely return to anchor; ( 6 ) during the typhoon prevention in addition to the necessary organization and command, rescue workers, to stop production.

92. what are the main points of protection against typhoon impacts?

Answer: ( 1 ) try to avoid walking on embankments and bridges that depend on rivers, lakes and seas; Ship as long as the timely return to hong kong shelter, anchor, ship personnel must be ashore shelter; Avoid driving in areas affected by strong winds as far as possible; ( 2 ) have to go out, be sure to dress eye - catching, bend slowly, as far as possible to seize the railing and other fixtures; To pay special attention to falling objects, do not walk or stay under the glass doors and windows, dangerous tent Jane house, temporary barrack near and billboards, neon lights and other high-altitude structures; ( 3 ) don't drive out, in the car to slow down, keep the car away. In case of strong wind, should stop at the side of the road, to prevent the side wind caused by rollover; ( 4 ) when a ship encounters a typhoon in navigation, it shall first contact the maritime department to inform the direction so as to search and rescue; At the same time to take the initiative to take emergency measures.

93. when the flood preparedness and self-help should pay attention to?

Answer: ( 1 ) timely contact with local or higher flood control and hydrological departments, to understand the flood forecast and early warning; Master their own location and the surrounding environment, calm choose the best transfer route, do know fairly well; ( 2 ) sufficient daily supplies and life-saving equipment and other supplies for urgent needs; Keep the mobile phone and other communication equipment, so that emergency contact; ( 3 ) the arrival of the flood, too late to transfer personnel, to the nearest quickly to the hillside, highlands, buildings and other places with higher terrain transfer or temporary avoidance; If the flood continues to rise, to make full use of prepared life-saving equipment to escape; ( 4 ) if involved in the flood, be sure to grasp the fixed or floating things as far as possible, looking for a chance to escape; ( 5 ) found that the high tension line tower tilt or wire sag, be sure to quickly avoid, prevent electric shock; ( 6 ) if surrounded by floods, as soon as possible to try to contact the local government flood control department or 110, seek rescue.

94. how to prevent flash floods?

Answer: ( 1 ) in case of flash floods to keep calm, quickly judge the surrounding environment, as soon as possible to the mountain or higher place transfer; ( 2 ) flash floods, creek flood rises rapidly, don't run along the hong road, and to avoid quickly on both sides. Don't wade across the river easily; ( 3 ) by mountain torrents trapped in the mountains, to timely contact with the local flood control department or 110. Seek help.

95. how to prevent debris flow?

Answer: ( 1 ) to understand all the special phenomena that will appear before the occurrence of debris flow, such as found in the riverbed normal water suddenly cut off or flood suddenly increased and with more firewood, trees, can confirm the trip debris flow; Or hear deep valley or ditch similar train roar or muffled thunder sound, even if very weak should also be identified as debris flow is forming, at this time should quickly leave the dangerous area; ( 2 ) in the valley engaged in water conservancy work, once encountered heavy rain, heavy rain, to quickly transfer to the safe highlands, don't avoid, stay in low-lying valley bottom or steep slope; Also don't stay in soft soil, soil instability slope, so as to avoid slope instability slide, should choose to stay in the base is stable and relatively flat open place; ( 3 ) after the storm stopped, don't rush to return to the ditch or work site, should wait for a period of time, because debris flow often lags behind the heavy rain; ( 4 ) found debris flow hit, can't run down or up along the ditch, and should run to the hillside on both sides, leave the channel, valley area.

96. be down or other objects pressure how to save yourself?

Answer: ( 1 ) strengthen their will to survive, keep clear - headed, eliminate fear, do not cry out for help, try to reduce physical consumption waiting for rescue; Do everything possible to contact with the outside world; ( 2 ) should try to free hands and feet first, eliminate pressure on yourself, especially above the abdomen objects, waiting for rescue. Cover your mouth and nose with towels, clothes, etc., to prevent suffocation caused by smoke inhalation; ( 3 ) try to support the weight may fall, to ensure that there is a safe living space, to have the light and air circulation.

97. what are the principles of distress relief for others?

Answer: ( 1 ) save more first, save less later; ( 2 ) save near first, then save far; ( 3 ) first save easy, after the rescue; ( 4 ) first rescue trapped in the edge of the building ruins, the bottom of the house or not completely damaged in the basement of the personnel.

98. how to rescue people injured by debris flow?

Answer: ( 1 ) will be buried in mud or collapsed buildings after the wounded rescued, should immediately remove the mouth, nose, throat soil and sputum, blood, etc., remove the sewage in the body; ( 2 ) the coma of the wounded, should let it lie low, head back, pull out the tongue, try to keep the respiratory tract unblocked; ( 3 ) if there is any trauma should be taken to stop bleeding, bandage, fixed methods such as processing, and then transferred to the first aid station.

99. what are the basic methods used for first aid at the scene of drowning?

Answer: ( 1 ) clean up foreign body in oral cavity and nasal cavity, clear respiratory tract; ( 2 ) pour out the abdominal cavity inhalation, and timely rescue. Method of pouring water: place the drowning person on the thigh of the rescuer, head down, and press his back to force the inhalation in the respiratory tract and stomach to discharge; ( 3 ) the heart, breathing has stopped, should immediately implement cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

100. what are the safety production management system?

Answer: ( 1 ) safety production responsibility system; ( 2 ) safety education and training system; ( 3 ) special operations personnel certificates system; ( 4 ) safety production inspection system; ( 5 ) labor protection articles management system; ( 6 ) industrial injury insurance system; ( 7 ) accident emergency rescue system; ( 8 ) accident report and on-site emergency disposal system; ( 9 ) accident accountability system; ( 10 ) safety production ledger system.




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